Education in mothertongue

Ministry of Human Resource Development23-March, 2017 16:46 IST
Education in Mother Tongue in Tribal Areas
The Ministry of Human Resource Development through Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) recognises the intra-regional, inter-state disparities and is supporting States/UTs to improve the infrastructure of schools in tribal areas.
A crucial step in this direction is the identification of Special Focus Districts (SFDs), one of the criteria for identification is the concentration of Scheduled Tribe (ST) population. A total of 109 districts have been identified as ST concentration districts. The details of infrastructure sanctioned in elementary and secondary government schools of these districts under SSA and RMSA, since 2009-10, is given below.
Total Number approved in ST concentration districts under  RMSA since 2009-10
New Schools
Strengthening of schools
Girls Hostel
ICT in school

Total Number approved in ST concentration districts under  SSA since 2009-10
Opening of New Primary Schools (including EGS to PS)
Opening of new Upper Primary Schools (UPS)
Construction of Primary School buildings
Construction of Upper Primary School buildings
Construction of Additional Classrooms

The Ministry of Tribal Affairs administers a programme under Article 275(1) of the Constitution. Under this programme, grants are provided to 27 states for setting up of Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRSs) for quality education of ST students of Class VI to Class XII. Funds are also released for infrastructural purpose of tribal residential schools including hostels under Article 275(1) of the Constitution and Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Plan.
Section 29(2) (f) of The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 states that “medium of instructions shall, as far as practicable, be in child’s mother tongue”. The National Curriculum Framework (NCF), 2005 emphasizes the importance of imparting primary education in the mother tongue of the child.
Since education is in the Concurrent List, States have the liberty to decide the medium of instruction in schools. Several States have taken steps to impart education to children in their mother tongue. The NCF clearly states that the Three-Language Formula is an attempt to address the challenges and opportunities of the linguistic situation in India. As per the “Three Language Formula” the first language to be studied must be the mother tongue or the regional language.
This information was given by the Minister of State (HRD), Shri Upendra Kushwaha today in a written reply to a Rajya Sabha question.


Ministry of Human Resource Development23-March, 2017 16:44 IST
Implementation of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is the designated scheme for implementation of the Right of the Child to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act 2009, with the aim of universalizing elementary education. National University of Educational and Planning and Administration (NUEPA) annually collects information in the form of Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE) on various educational indicators. SSA has made significant progress in achieving near universal access and equity. As per UDISE 2015-16, enrolment in elementary schools has increased from 18.78 crore in 2009-10 to 19.67 crore children. There has been a significant reduction in the number of out of school children in the 6-14 years age group, from 134.6 lakh in 2005 to 81 lakh in 2009 and further to 61 lakh in 2014. The annual average dropout rate at primary level has come down from 9.11% in 2009-10 to 4.13% in 2015-16. The transition rate from primary to upper primary has gone up from 83.53% in 2009-10 to 90.14% in 2015-16. The Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR) has improved from 32 in 2009-10 to 24 in 2015-16.

SSA aims to universalize access to elementary education by providing financial support for the creation of school infrastructure as per the norms and standards specified in the RTE Act, 2009. Since the inception of SSA in 2001 till 2016-17, sanction has been given for opening of 3,64,155 new elementary schools, construction of 3,11,622 school buildings, and 18,73,415 additional classrooms, 2,42,198 drinking water facilities and 10,36,470 school toilets. States and UTs have reported that 3,59,826 new elementary schools have been opened; construction of 3,02,919 school buildings and 18,37,445 additional classrooms have been completed; and 2,33,088 drinking water facilities and 9,88,449 toilets have been constructed as on 30.09.2016. Out of 19.49 lakh post of teachers sanctioned, 15.75 lakh teachers have been recruited by States and UTs as on 31.12.2016.

Further, under the Swachh Vidyalaya initiative, 4,17,796 toilets were constructed in 2,61,400 elementary and secondary government schools in a period of one year from 15.8.2014 to 15.8.2015, thus ensuring that every government school has a separate functional toilet for girls and boys. With this, about 13.58 crore children in 11.08 lakh government schools were given access to gender segregated toilets.

The Central Government reviews and monitors implementation of the SSA periodically with the States and Union Territories at different fora, including the State Education Ministers’ Conferences. It is reviewed twice every year by Joint Review Mission (JRM) comprising independent experts and members of external funding agencies, covering all States by rotation. The status of these evaluations and monitoring is placed in the public domain on the Ministry’s website.

This information was given by the Minister of State (HRD), Shri Upendra Kushwaha today in a written reply to a Rajya Sabha question.


Ministry of Human Resource Development23-March, 2017 16:48 IST
Career Counselling Sessions in Schools
The National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 provided guidelines for facilitating healthy growth and development of students across all school stages and for guidance/counselling at each of these school stages from elementary through secondary and higher secondary stages. To meet the desired goals of guidance and counselling services, the NCF delineates the responsibilities of states to augment guidance and counselling services. Further, the Framework for Implementation of Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) recognizes the role of guidance and counselling services in promoting student retention and better scholastic performance in curricular areas, facilitating adjustment and career development of students, developing right attitude towards studies, self, work and others. The Framework provides that every school should have at least one teacher and preferably two teachers (one male and one female) trained in guidance and counselling. The in-service teacher training under RMSA has incorporated a module on counselling. However, there is no proposal to make career counselling sessions mandatory in all Government Senior Secondary schools.

In addition, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya’s (JNVs) are arranging Career counselling classes through teachers who are trained by Regional Institute of Educations (RIEs) or National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and Librarians of JNVs guide the students regarding career options. Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS) has a provision for appointment of Counsellors on contractual basis in the Kendriya Vidyalayas for providing Guidance & Counselling services to classes IX to XII.

This information was given by the Minister of State (HRD), Shri Upendra Kushwaha today in a written reply to a Rajya Sabha question. 


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